‘’New Challenges, New Solutions’’





Using Anatomical Constraints and Topological Consistency for Facial Reconstruction with Reface


Peter Tu*, Rebecca Brown*, Tim Kelliher*, Bill Lorensen*, Charles Gilman*,

Carl Adrian**, Heather Peters**

* Visualization and Computer Vision General Electric General Electric 1Research CircleNiskayuna,NY,USA

** Federal Bureau of Investigation, NY,USA


This works shows that anatomical constraints and topological consistency can provide a feature-based approach to face reconstruction. To perform an initial reconstruction, Reface morphs each known database skull onto a questioned skull. This provides a warping field for each of the known CT faces. An Eigen system is then created and the mean face is used as the basis for the initial reconstruction. Unlike previous work, each CT database face is now made to be topologically consistent so that points such as the tip of the nose are in correspondence. The user manually defines a set of landmark points on the questioned skull, which then define control points on the reconstructed face such as the tip of the nose. The base reconstruction of ReFace is forced to be consistent with these control points. In addition, elements from a parts library (eyes, nose mouth), are similarly constrained. It is shown that the resulting feature based reconstructions are consistent with the skeletal structure of the face.


Face Image Comparison Based on 2D and 3D Techniques 

Arnout Ruifrok

Digital Technology, Forensic Institute,Netherlands

The majority of automatic face recognition research has been focused on the use of two-dimensional intensity images. Although some of the biometric techniques reach reasonably high levels of recognition under controlled circumstances with frontal face images, of course surveillance images hardly ever capture a suspect frontal face, with good lighting conditions, and a neutral facial expression. We studied the feasibility of using absolute distances between facial landmarks in 3D models and 2D projections for identification. From these studies it was clear that neither 2D nor 3D distances between landmarks will suffice for forensic identification purposes. However, of course still other shape and texture features are available for facial comparison. In forensic comparison of a facial images preferably reference images are used in which the head is positioned corresponding to the disputed facial image. 3D imaging techniques, together with 3D modeling software, offer the possibility of flexible and reproducible positioning of the head of a person corresponding to the face and camera position of the 2D facial images. This creates the opportunity to more accurately compare relatively unique features, like moles and scars, with respect to there shape and positioning on the face.


Automated Craniofacial Reconstruction Using Ultrasound and CT-Based Soft Tissue Thickness Databases

D. Vandermeulen1 PhD, S. De Greef  DDS2 , P. Claes M.Eng. 1, P. Suetens1 PhD, G. Willems DDS PhD2.

1Medical Image Computing (ESAT/PSI), 2Centre of Forensic Odontology,

Faculties of Medicine and Engineering

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

We propose several computer-based three-dimensional facial reconstruction techniques. The reconstructions are based on a large-scale (N=967) soft tissue thickness database measured at 52 landmarks, of a representative subset of the actual Caucasian population over the different age and body posture subcategories. The new soft tissue thickness database was statistically analysed for lateral asymmetry and correlation with gender, age and BMI.

This soft tissue thickness database was subsequently used in a computerized craniofacial reconstruction technique in combination with a statistical face shape model, constructed from a facial database of (N=400) individuals. The face model limits the reconstructions to statistically plausible outlooks. The actual reconstruction is obtained by fitting this combined face shape and soft tissue thickness model to a digital copy of the skull to be reconstructed. Estimated properties of the skull specimen (BMI, age and gender, e.g.) can be incorporated as additional conditions on the reconstruction. The proposed statistical method was validated, both in terms of accuracy and identification success rate.

In parallel, we implemented an automated craniofacial reconstruction procedure based on a database of 3-D cross-sectional CT images. Both qualitative and quantitative tests, measuring the similarity between the 3D reconstructed and corresponding original head surface, on a small (N=20) database are presented to proof the validity of the concept.


In Vivo Facial Tissue Depth Measurements

by Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography in 46 Adults


Selma Uysal Ramadan*, Nursel Türkmen**, A. Sadi Çağdır***, Dilek Gökharman*, Işıl Tunçbilek*, Uğur Koşar*

* Radiology department of Ankara Training andResearchHospital,Ankara,Turkey

**UludagUniversityMedical Faculty, Forensic Medicine Department,Bursa,Turkey

*** Council of Forensic Medicine, Ministry of Justice Istanbul,Turkey

The aim of this study was to assess the facial soft tissue depth measurements of the living people ofAnatolia. Facial reconstruction is one of the methods of identification in human skeletal remains. This technique is dependent on the estimated soft tissue depths over various anatomical sites of the skull and jaws. The lack of information makes facial reconstruction questionable for Anatolian people. We evaluated the head and/or neck computed tomography (CT) scans of 46 patients (22 females, 24 males; age range:20-40 years). Using three-dimensional CT reconstructions, facial tissue depths were measured at 17 anatomical points; 9 of which were midline (the supraglabella, glabella, nasion, nasal end, mild-philtrum, chin-lip fold, mental eminence, beneath chin, and height of the lips), and 8 of which were bilateral paramedian points (the lateral nostril, supraorbital, infraorbital, inferior mid-mandible, lateral orbit, anterior zygoma, gonion and root of zygoma). The means and standart deviations were assessed for each sex. The nasion, mild-philtral, chin lip fold, beneath chin and mid-supraorbital points showed larger tissue depths in males (p<0.05). The computed tomographic measurement of facial soft tissue thicknesses may provide valuable information in three-dimensional facial reconstruction and identification.

Facial Reconstruction Using the Two Dimensional Method

(A Case Report)

Taşkın Özdeş, A. Sadi Çağdır, Feyzi Şahin, Bestami Çolak

Council of Forensic Medicine, Ministry of Justice Istanbul,Turkey

Most parts of the skeleton reflects the physical structure of individuals. In those, skull does not only assist to distinguish the characteristics of age, sex and race, but also the main structure for distinguishing the cephalic identity. Defining the constitution of the face of the person in question with the assist of the skull and designating the physiognomy of the person underlie the studies of identification with the skull. While reconstruction gives a more vivid appearance because it is 3 dimensional, some anthropologists advocated 2 dimensional drawings.  The advantages of the drawing are being simpler, being cheaper and to allow keeping the skull in appropriate condition for some other evaluations. The case is reported to be found in a corn field as some soft tissues to be present. The Association of Forensic Sciences, Morgue Specialization Bureau convicted that the present bones belonged to a boy of 11- 13 years old and the mortality reason of the boy who had soft tissue losses can’t be identified by present evidences and probable face appearance was sent with an attachment. Then, DNA comparison of the blood specimen that belonged to the people who were believed to be the parents of the boy and the bone specimen that belonged to the boy which were sent by the office of the public prosecutor was done. It was determined that he was the common son of the people that were sent. It is certain that the end point of all identification applications is DNA processing when there are materials for comparison. In corpse which were not identifiable because of soft tissue loss due to decaying and/or which have no relatives at the first time, and consequently have no comparison material, lost people with similar faces that were obtained by reconstruction method may be investigated.


Facial Reconstruction Using the Three Dimentional Method

(A Test Study)

Eyüp Yılmaz*, Taşkın Özdeş*, Yüksel Aydın Yazıcı*, Gürol Berber*,

Emine Karaaslan**

* The Council of Forensic Medicine Ministry of Justice,Istanbul,Turkey

** 19 Mayıs University,SchoolofDentistry,Samsun,Turkey

Facial reconstruction depends on principle that reconstruction of soft tissue of skull and face in advanced putrefaction of corpse or in skeleton. Facial reconstruction can be dividing into 4 categories. First of all; destructed or decayed soft tissue fragments reposition onto skull. Secondly, using photography and drawing in identification.  Tertiary, graphics, photographs and video superimposition technique can be used in identification. Fourthly, plastic or three dimensional reconstructions by covering with slime (dirt) onto skull can be used in identification. A picture or a cloth of person can give information about shape of body or sexuality. It is reported in judicial file that corpse without soft tissue and with it clothes, slippers, denture, and rod in mountain and in forest.  With these a blood sample belongs to person claimed to mother of corpse. Sexuality of corpse determined as a female and blood with a 99.99 possibility belongs to mother of corpse with DNA profiling. According to report of department of morgue there are no specialty on existing bones except a postmortem defect that can be made by animals.

In this study, it is aimed to improve expertise and to question of expert technique by carrying out facial reconstruction.

Selected Cases of Positive Craniofacial Identifications

A.Sadi Çağdır*, Yalçın Büyük*, Hüseyin Afşin**, Yüksel A.Yazıcı*, R.Özdemir Kolusayın **

*    The Council of Forensic Medicine Ministry of Justice, Istanbul, Turkey

** Department of Forensic Medicine, Istanbul Uni. Cerrahpaşa Medical School, Istanbul

Identification is one of the most important topics of Forensic sciences. Identification process of skeletalized human remains requires special techniques and investigations.   Most of the unidentified human remains found in anywhere in Turkey are sent to the council of Forensic Medicine for identification. Initial Works on craniofacial identification started in1995 inthe Council. Identification processes such as 3-D and 2-D facial reconstruction, skull-photograph superimposition and radiologic identification are now routinely carried out.

In this presantation we report succesfull craniofacial identification cases and discuss the needed efforts to increase the success rate.


Key Words: Facial Reconstruction, Human Identification, Photo-skull Superimposition


EigenFIT – An Evolutionary Approach to Facial Composite Construction

Christopher J. Solomon, Stuart J. Gibson, Alvaro Pallares Bejarano, Matthew Maylin

SchoolofPhysical Sciences,University of Kent,United Kingdom


Traditional facial composite systems rely on the witness’ ability to recall individual features, provide verbal descriptions and then select features from stored libaries – a task which witnesses often find difficult. The EigenFIT facial composite system exploits the highly developed human capacity to recognise and compare faces by requiring the witness to view and respond in simple ways to arrays of faces generated by the computer.

Recently approved by the British Home Office for police trials, EigenFIT has a speed and ease-of-use which are already superior to existing commercial systems and an early prototype of the system showed accuracy ratings equal to those of the current, leading commercial system. An advanced operational mode allows users to exert maximum control over the composition process, directly performing feature alteration, age progression, the weighted blending of faces and other useful tasks.

We will explain the scientific and psychological basis of EigenFIT, demonstrate its operation and present results of both laboratory and field use of the system.


Statistically Rigorous, Computerized Age Progression

C.J. Solomon, Catherine Scandrett, Stuart Gibson

SchoolofPhysical Sciences,UniversityofKent,Canterbury,United Kingdom

Forensic age progression for the purpose of identifying a missing child or adult is a discipline currently dominated by artistic methodologies. Typically, the generation of such age-progressed images is very time-consuming and of uncertain accuracy. In order to improve on this situation, we present a statistically rigorous, computerized approach to the aging of the human face.

The technique is based upon a statistical learning method in which a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the shape and colour of a comprehensive training sample of faces enables us to automatically identify the dominant changes in facial appearance.

Near photo-realistic images can be obtained quickly and semi-automatically and the resultant aging effects are realistic and plausible. We further outline how to incorporate person-specific information (such as the facial appearance of close relatives) in a statistically optimal way.

Our paper will outline the theoretical basis for our method, show illustrative examples and present quantitative analysis of its performance.

Does Botox Treatment Make a Change by Facial Identification?


Rıza Yılmaz, A. Sadi Çağdır

The Council of Forensic Medicine,Istanbul,Turkey

The cosmetic form of botulinum toxin, often referred to by its product name Botox, is a popular non-surgical injection that temporarily reduces or eliminates frown lines, forehead creases, crows feet near the eyes and thick bands in the neck. Craniofacial identification methods heavily rely on the knowledge of average soft tissue depths. In some situations such as using Botox, temporarily paralyzes the muscles that cause wrinkles while giving the skin a smoother. In our study, comparisons about before and after botox with photograph have a useful role in the process of identification.

Keywords: Identification, comparison, botox, photograph


Age Estimation: a Morphologic Method for Forensic Facial Identification 

Mira R. Gökdoğan

Istanbul University Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey

Over the last two decades, the widespread use of surveillance cameras in banks, jewelers, malls, and governmental buildings are a useful tool for forensic photographic identification and prove to be very effective in court to convict a criminal. But, problems arise when enough of the face cannot be examined or the suspect denies being the one at the scene of the crime. Also, new electronic imaging equipment has become available, to show age progression in cases of missing children and fugitives wanted by the police. However, objective and reliable scientific methods, leading to an accuracy of age estimation in personal identification, are currently lacking and forensic requests have arisen regarding standards of assessment. To develop means of quality assurance for an accurate technique for age estimation, the measurement and analysis of facial morphology and development, the interrelation between age and environmental factors on the facial skin, sickness, nourishment, and facial expressions are relevant details to take account. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the facial morphologic differences of living individuals and to compare the results with the anatomic components, which are influenced by sex and age. Female and male individuals, a total of 136, of different ages and with a residence inIstanbul, were chosen at random. In general, photographs were taken in the year of 2002, during daylight and with no standard procedures. Relevant details of the participants were statistical evaluated and morphological analysis, concerning age estimation, assessed. The systematic approach, based on the selection of proportions within the face, proved to be suitable. In addition, a comparison with regard to the accuracy of this method has been applied, and the results fulfilled the demands of value. In conclusion, this morphological method was found to be reliable for age estimation, and the findings produced by this method could be easily understandable in a court of law.

Keywords: forensic anthropology; facial identification; age estimation


Evaluation of Criminals Physical Appearance Descriptions

Ahmet Acar

Police Department,Istanbul,Turkey

Most important thing to catch criminals is to find out the identity. After crime to identify and to catch a criminal one of the most basic duties. To identify a criminal victims and witness testimonies about the physical appearance those help police to find out the criminals from criminal photo album and photofit are another way to catch the criminals. In Forensic sciences and law there are two types of identity descriptions 1) Forensic identity: It is the identity that is created by the ID Office and consist of peoples individual records. 2) biological identity: the identity that includes the body parts specific biological information. As the meaning of physical appearance; the description of the witness about the perpetrators biological identity. Face is the most specific describable part. The out part of face shape changes. As physiological period of getting older and the effects of the genetic construction there some more things those makes differentness and similarities on the physiology of the face. On the other hand if the case can not solve with the evidence that have already collected from the crime scene physical appearance description will be the key point to identify the criminals. It is the responsibility of the investigator to get the correct result, to evaluate it and to catch the criminal. The things those effect the success of the descriptions are perceptions like the victims and witness who describes the criminal and environmental issues. Main goal of the work; to find out  the words that community using  to describe  the  physical appearance  of the criminals in Istanbul and  by finding out the things that effect to describe the  physical appearance in a good way  to identify the criminals and to identify the criminals. In Istanbul because being  one of the crime types in which the most of the victims come face to face with criminals and using force to get the goods of people with out permission the usurpation crime is chosen as the subject. Information slips about the 115 cases and 220 criminals physical appearance descriptions in which victims applied to Istanbul Public Order Department Usurpation Unit are used. The words and descriptions that are used to describe the criminals in the testimonies of the victims and witnesses 27 changeable and 1257 descriptions have been found out from the descriptions of the victims. Changeable issues have divided to 3 groups. In the 1. group 5 changeable issues (hair, age, length, skin color and accent) are over the %50 scale, In the 2. group 8 changeable issues(clothes, weight, face shape , mustache, eye types) between the %50-%10 scale and  In the 3. group 14 changeable issues (body, chin, nose, eyebrow ear, lip, voice, shoulder type and accessories wearied on the heat , hand and arm) under the %10 scale. Usurpation criminals physical appearance is especially described like that: the ages of 20 to 24, the height of 1.60cm to 1.70cm, with black- short and straight hair, dark-skinned and with eastern accent. And these criminals usually wear black jeans, shirt and leather jacket. It is usually understood that the criminals physical appearance described by the victims shows variability. These databases told by victims are able to be used to draw robot Picture. For The variability of descriptions on criminals physical appearance, we need a standard biometric searching to compare and find out the criminals.

Wang Lijun (China)    

Physical Evidence and Reconstruction of Crime Scenes and Criminal Psychological Analysis 

The Role of Denture in Recognition of the Unknown Body 

Wang Lijun, Liu Chunjie, Feng Mingsheng, Zhang Jiwei, Liu Zhuo

TheResearchCenterof Scene Psychology of Jinzhou Police Department,Jinzhou,China


For the unknown bodies, forensic doctors and crime investigators have to scrutinize and record from clothing to the body surface. The purpose is to identify the victim’s own traits in order to seek its recognition. However, for those naked bodies of decomposing, dismembered, or with only skull left, the traits are far less from being recorded. This paper presents the should-not-underestimated role of the denture in recognition of unknown bodies through the case study of an unknown body, in which forensic analysis and research was carried out on the denture to determine the investigation direction. With these, the victim is recognized and the source of the unknown body is found800 kilometersaway. In the end, the homicide case of the dismembered and dumped body is settled.

Keywords: Denture; trait; the source of unknown body


Alteration of the Face after Facial Plastic Surgery Procedures

Ferhat Erişir


Every year, half a millions of people in the world who are interested in improving the appearance of their face seek consultation with facial plastic surgeons. This presentation will show us the big changes on the face after the procedure is done. The nose is the most defining characteristic of the face, a slight alteration can greatly improve one’s appearance. Droopy eyelids can make you look older and can also impair vision. Blepharoplasty corrects these problems and also removes puffiness and bags under the eyes that make you look worn and tired. A well defined chin helps give balance to the face and creates a major part of one’s profile. When people look in the mirror, most focus on the size and shape of their noses, their ears, sagging jowls, or fine wrinkling of the skin. But even though few examine their chins with the same discerning eye, having a “weak chin” is certainly not an asset. Probably no other physical characteristic cries out for facial plastic surgery more than protruding ears. Children, long the victims of cruel nicknames like “Dumbo” or “Mickey Mouse,” are the most likely candidates for otoplasty. In conclusion; to alter the face nose, chin, lips, brows, eyelids, and the ears are the most important places. These changes on the face can be done with surgical prosedures, fillers, laser and may other different ways.

The Use of Mtdna Technology in Bone and Teeth Identification

Ayşen Çelebioğlu

Gendarmerie Criminal Lab.,Ankara,Turkey

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis has found an important niche in forensic DNA typing. When death is due to war or homicide, the identification of victims can both establish the culpability of those responsible and provide survivors with credible knowledge about the fate of their relatives. However, genetic identification can be complicated by long intervals between the time of death and examination of tissues. The decompositon or destruction of soft tissues may leave only bone and teeth available for analysis. The mtDNA techniques are particularly promising and dental tissue, especially dental pulp, is a good source of mtDNA because it is well protected against autolysis. The genetic analysis of mtDNA is also a preferred approach when the forensic question entails establishing identity through familial relationship, e.g. the identification of recovered remains from the war dead or victims of mass disasters. Because mtDNA is directly inherited through the maternal lineage, it is possible to make familial connections over multiple generations provided a maternal lineage can be clearly traced. mtDNA technology is used with highly degraded samples or low-copy number materials such as might be found from shed hair or bones exposed to severe environmental conditions. The primary advantage of mtDNA is that it is present in high copy number within cells and therefore more likely to be recovered from highly degraded specimens. A major disadvantage to traditional forensic mtDNA analysis is that it is time-consuming and labor-intensive to generate and review the 610 nucleotides of sequence information commonly targeted in hypervariable regions I and II (HVI and HVII) of the control region. In addition, common haplotypes exist in HVI/HVII mtDNA sequences (typically positions 16024-16365 and 73-340) that can reduce the ability to differentiate two unrelated samples. Sequencing mtDNA from teeth should also add to available information for studies in antropology and human evolution. The methods are only usable if comparative material belonging to the subject, such as hair, is available. Teeth are highly resistant to environmental degradation and are an excellent source of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). In conclusion, personal identification can be performed precisely by the data of DNA profile and mtDNA typing compared to the genotype of the relative. Keywords:


DNA Analysis: Genotyping Individuals from Single Hair Samples 

Richard Grosse, Eva Spitzer and Carmen Borck


PCR based DNA analysis has become the most powerful instrument in forensic casework. Smallest amounts of degraded DNA obtained from different sources such as blood, tissue, saliva cells or skeletal remains often must serve as starting materials for DNA trace analysis. Spatial interest is focussed on single human hair analysis because telogen hairs are found in most of the cases and may serve as important piece of evidence.

A new rapid method for STR genotyping of single telogen hairs has been developed (Short Amplicon Assay, SAA). DNA extraction was performed by digestion and lysis in presence of DTT and proteinase K, followed by subsequent binding and elution of DNA in a BioRobot EZ1. DNA extracts were analysed by means of multiplex PCR system allowing to genotype 8 STR loci and amelogenin in 3 multiplex PCRs. The STR core panel recommended by ENFSI was chosen and primers have been selected to ensure minimal amplicon length for each of the STR loci. The procedure was evaluated by genotyping hair donors (n=23). The probability of identifying an individual by SAA was found to be in the range of 98,8 – 99,9999 %. Thus, this method can be used for rapid and efficient DNA analysis in forensic casework, particularly when only small amounts of degraded DNA are available.

Identification of Burned Victims

Nursel Türkmen, Bulent Eren, Recep Fedakar, DilekDurak

UludagUniversityMedical Faculty, Forensic Medicine Department and Council of Forensic Medicine,Bursa,Turkey

Establishing a computerized data bank of antemortem information on missing persons and postmortem findings in disaster victims greatly facilitates and expedites the identification process. In our country positive identification of human remains is one of the most difficult tasks in disaster management. The use of autopsy procedures included a general external examination, the antemortem information, routine photographs for sucsesfull identification is very important. In the paper we present results of the postmortem examination of the very heavily carbonized fragmentary human remains recovered from the scene of a nearbay completely destroyed factory after accidental fire. Autopsy procedures included a general external examination, routine photographs, toxicological examinations; complementary biological methods for identification and dental identification were not performed. Toxicological examinations of alcohol, drugs and medicines were negative. This examination allowed for identification of the deceased from the gold necklace which resisted the fire and second burn victim recognized from orthopedic platinium plate instrumantation. Here we report on the use of victums personal objects for positive identification of fragmentary human remains recovered from the scene of a accidental factory fire.

Human Corps Recovered from the Water

Bülent Eren, Nursel Türkmen, Dilek Durak, Recep Fedakar

UludagUniversityMedical Faculty, Forensic Medicine Department and Council of Forensic Medicine,Bursa,Turkey

Positive identification of human remains is one of the most important tasks in human corps recovered from the water the use of personal objects, body marks, careful external examination for positive identification of human remains, corps recovered from the water is important in our country. Standard operating protocols applied by the dentists in different countries are ineffective because of imperfect dental records. Available accurate and complete medical and dental records of high quality of antemortem data of the victims made the identification process easier. Many problems were encountered in the identification of a decomposed, visually unidentifiable, edentulous deceased human remains and corps recovered from the sea. We present results post mortem examination and identification of of two cases recovered from the water. Autopsy procedures included a general external examination, routine photographs, toxicological examinations; complementary biological methods for identification and dental identification were not studied. Toxicological examinations of alcohol, drugs and medicines were also performed. Examination allowed for identification of the two deceased; first case heavily decomposed body identified from the clothes and personal belongings, second case recognised from her operation scar. We aim to reveal the importance of victim’s personal objects and physical properties for positive identification of human remains recovered from the water.

Bülent Şam, Hüseyin Afşin (Turkey)

Mistakes in the process of trauma analysis and identifications in airplane crashes: Two Case Reports

The process for identification and trauma analysis for massive deaths like airplane accidents have been clarified within experience.  After transport of the casualties and security of the accident zone have been established, definite confirmation of the antemortem and postmortem data and identification of all the victims are performed. The organization consists of communication, rescue team, autopsy and identification personnel, all of whom are experienced in relevant fields.

If the organization is incorrect or incomplete or if the accurate procedures are not used, irreversible mistakes might ensue and many questions will remain unanswered.

This report deals with scene investigation, identification and autopsies associated with two airplane accidents, one inDiyarbakırin January 8, 2003 and the other inTrabzonin May 26, 2003. The main problems are lack of numbering the body parts completely, delivery of the bodies without complete identification and lack of sophisticated equipment and personnel.



Bülent Şam, Hüseyin Afşin, Gökhan Ersoy, Ümit Ünüvar Atılmış (Turkey)

Importance of Craniofacial Identification in Explosions

Increasing numbers of terrorist bombings brings new problems. The explosions tend to be more sophisticated with more powerful explosives. Also suicidal bombings are becoming more prevalent.  Additionally, concurrent or sequential bombings take place.

Identification of the perpetrator and associated suspects is one of the most important problems. If the perpetrator is identified, then associated suspects can be found and potential explosions might be prevented.

We will discuss the identification of the perpetrator associated with suicidal explosions.


3-D Surgical Simulation and Soft Tissue Prediction for Maxillofacial Deformities 

Selcuk Basa

MarmaraUniversity, Faculty of Dentistry Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery,Istanbul,Turkey

Treatment techniques of maxillofacial surgery progress simultaneously with overwhelming speed of technologic advancements. Evaluation of difficult bimaxillary skeletal deformities with esthetic and functional aspects requires accurate planning and precise surgery. Software programs that stimulate maxillofacial procedures have become important as evaluation and presentation tools.

Distraction surgery, classic orthognathic osteotomy planning, cephalometric analysis and soft tissue response could be analyzed in details with these programs.  All surgical simulations and facial predilections are based on a 3-D computed tomographs reconstruction bone models. Data process of CT images into full 3-D CAD images allows fabrication of stereolitographic (STL) models which could be beneficial for preoperative device adaptation and study models.

Various types of patients with maxillofacial deformities were evaluated with Mimics and Simplant CMF (Materialise,Belgium). Virtual surgeries with repositioning of osteotomized segments were performed on final craniomaxillofacial skeleton models of patients. Distractors were adapted on the stereolitographic models and activated to check out vector orientation. Preoperative adaptation of a distractor prevents significant consumption of operation time during surgeries. Using 3-D stimulator in difficult maxillofacial deformity cases proved to be helpful instrument for assessing topographic anatomy and planning mode of treatment.

Anatomic Characteristics of the Anterior Permanent Teeth for Chinese Han Majority in the Northeast

Wang Lijun*, Sha Feng*, Liu Zhuo**

* The ResearchCenterofScenePsychology,JinzhouPublic SecurityBureau,China

** Jinzhou Medical College, China

The objective is to study morphological characteristics of the anterior permanent teeth of the Chinese Han majority in the Northeast of China, and to analyze the correlation between different indexes and to pursue the difference with other regions and nationalities. The purpose is to establish a database of analytical index for the population in this region. Hence, the crown length, crown width, crown thickness, dental neck’s length and thickness were measured with a vernier caliper and SPSS software was adopted for analyzing the correlation between different indexes. As a result, the data on the external morphology were obtained for the adults in the Northeast of China, and there is an obvious associativity among different indexes. It is concluded that different anterior teeth have their distinctly anatomic form for adults.

Keywords: Anterior teeth, external morphology, associativity


Reliability in Age Determination by Apposition Secondarie Dentine in Canines in Skeletal Remains

Cameriere R, Brogi G, Ferrante L, Gigli E., Mirtella D, Vultaggio C, Cingolani M and Fornaciari G.

Istitute of Legal Medicine,University of Macerata,Italy

Estimations of age of skeletal remains are the one of the most complex questions for anthropologists. The most common macroscopic methods are based on dental wear, but the oppositions of secondary dentina is also often applied and various technique are used to investigated the pulp including tooth cross-sections and X-ray. The primary authors previously proposed a method of estimating the age a living person based on the pulp/tooth ratio (PTR) method in the upper canines. In this study were analysed samples of skeleton came from three sites. In all three sites, the age of skeleton was estimated by evaluation of secondary dentine of the upper canines; radiographs were digitized by scanner and images were then recorded in a computer file. This study show that PTR method is not only a useful technique to assess the chronological age of living persons, but its also a reliable tool in the determination of age at the death in skeletal remains.

Age Estimation in Children by Measurement of Hand/Wrist Area and Apices in Teeth

Cameriere R.

Istitute of Legal Medicine,University of Macerata,Italy

Estimation of skeletal age using radiographic images is widely used in assessing biological growth in clinical and auxological studies. The most frequently used areas for age estimation in children and adolescents are tooth and wrist/hand, both giving good results with only a low level of radiation. Previously, Cameriere et all have studied two methods of evaluating age, using both teeth and wrist/hand. This study of a sample of 150 Italian children and adolescents aged between 5 and 15 years focused on analyzing the possible applications of the proportion of carpal area (Ca) and teeth mineralization as a criterion of age estimation. The regression model, describing age as a linear function of the ratio Bo/Ca and the measurement of open apices, yielded the following equation: Age= 4.619+0.401*g + 0.551*N0-0.647*s+7.163*Bo/Na -0.123*N0*s , and explained 93% of the total variance (R2=0.93). The median of the absolute values of residuals (observed age minus predicted age) was 0.0 years, with a quartile deviation of 0.92 years, and a standard error of estimate of 0.727 years.


Trauma Analysis and Identifications with Skeletal Remains: Case Report 

Ümit Ünüvar Atılmış*, Ziya Kır**, Bülent Şam*, Beytullah Karadayı**, Safa Çelik**, Ali Çerkezoğlu*

* Councill of Forensic Medicine,Istanbul

** Department of Forensic Medicine,IstanbulUni.CerrahpaşaMedicalSchool,Istanbul

Introduction: Obtaining skeletal remnants at the scene and procedures of trauma analysis and identification have some differences from autopsy. The skeletal remnants should be recovered by stuff experienced in different excavation and recovery techniques according to the type of the crime scene. The remnants should be scanned radiologically and personal belongings and clothing should be identified in detail and photographed. The bones should be classified and arranged into anatomical positions so that the missing or mixed ones are determined. The age, sex, height, dominant extremity and the race of the person should be predicted by the use of all possible techniques. Bone deformity anomalies and pathologies should be determined, notches and patterns should be documented and sinus radiographies should be taken. Additionally, anterior and lateral photographs should be taken for superimposition procedure and bones should be evaluated traumatically and possible cause of death should be determined.

Case: This report is about a skeleton in a sack found in well. According to the confession of the suspects it was a aggressive strangulation. The remnants of the skeleton were extricated by unqualified personnel and consequently some parts of the skeleton were left in the well. Due to local circumstances radiological examination was not performed. The bones were arranged according to anatomical positions and the missing bones were determined, epiphysis lines, closure of the skull sutures, ossification of the thyroid cartilage and changes associated with age at sternal ends of the ribs were also recorded. The height was predicted according to femur, tibia and fibula measurements and sex was predicted according to pelvis, skull and mandible examination. As a result of the trauma analysis, fractures at right processus articularis superior vertebra C6 level were determined and the confessions of the suspects were confirmed.


Determination of Sex based on Measurements of the Face 

Abdi Özaslan*, Ziya Kır*, Hüseyin Afşin*, Harun Tuğcu**, Günay Can***

*IstanbulUniversity, Medical Faculty of Cerrahpaşa, Department of Forensic Medicine,



***IstanbulUniversity, Medical Faculty of Cerrahpaşa, Department of of Public Health,


The identification of a person’s gender can create problems for the investigation of the identity of some of the victims.  In spite of a need for such a study, there is a lack of systematic studies to identify fragmented and dismembered human remains.  The purpose of this paper is to analyze anthropometric relationships between dimensions of the face and sex.

Analysis are based on samples of male (n = 202) and female (n = 108) middle class adult Turks residing inIstanbul. The participants are mostly students, staff members of a medical school and military personnel. This study includes subjects without any pathologic or morphologic skeletal changes. All measurements are taken from the left side according to the procedure described by the International Biological Programme. For the convenience of the readers the dimension are taken by a sliding caliper. Taken measurements are bizygomatic diameter, morphological face height and bigonial diameter.

The associations of relevant variables and gender were assessed with multiple logistic regression and discriminant method. The logistic regression analyse was performed for discrimination of gender. A total accuracy of 75,8% was estimated by using morphological face height and bigonial diameter predictors.

The conclusion of this study is that the determination of a living sex can be made possible, while using various dimensions of face. But one must consider the differences between populations in order to apply functions as such to others.

Keyword: Determination sex, dimensions face, mass disaster, Turks



Determination of Sex based on Measurements of the Head 

Abdi Özaslan*; Safa Çelik*, Beytullah Karadayı*, Sermet Koç*, Günay Can**

*IstanbulUniversity, Medical Faculty of Cerrahpaşa, Department of Forensic Medicine,


**IstanbulUniversity, Medical Faculty of Cerrahpaşa, Department of Public Health,


The identification of a person’s gender can create problems for the investigation of the identity of some of the victims. In spite of a need for such a study, there is a lack of systematic studies to identify fragmented and dismembered human remains. The purpose of this paper is to analyze anthropometric relationships between dimensions of the head and sex.

Analysis are based on samples of male (n= 202) and female (n= 108) middle class adult Turks residing inIstanbul. The participants are mostly students, staff members of a medical school and military personnel. This study includes subjects without any pathologic or morphologic skeletal changes. All measurements are taken from the left side according to the procedure described by the International Biological Programme. For the convenience of the readers the dimension are taken by a sliding caliper. Taken measurements are head length, head breadth and head height.

The associations of relevant variables and gender were assessed with multiple logistic regression and discriminant method. The logistic regression analyse was performed for discrimination of gender. A total accuracy of 75,5% was estimated by using head length and head breadth predictors. The conclusion of this study is that the determination of a living sex can be made possible, while using various dimensions of head. But one must consider the differences between populations in order to apply functions as such to others.

Keyword: Determination sex, dimensions head, mass disaster, Turks


Experimental Study on K and C1 Changes in the

Blood of the Drowned 

Han Jiang1*, Liu Jun*, Li Xiaoming**, Li Xuejin**

* TheResearchCenterof Scene Psychology of Jinzhou Police Department,Jinzhou,China

** Department of Forensic Medicine,JinzhouMedicalCollege,Jinzhou,China


The purpose is to study the changes of K+and C1 in the blood of the rabbits drowned and the significance of forensic medicine. First the rabbits were put to death in drowning and then concentration of K+ and C1- in venous blood was measured respectively. The results showed that the concentration of K+rose remarkably (p<0.01) while the changes of C1- were not evident (p>0.05). Hence, when identifying the drowned, concentration of K+and C1- in blood could be measured, and the concentration of K+in blood rising evidently could be considered as the evidence of the death by drowning.

Keywords: the drowned, K+, C1-


Prevention of dental caries and orthodontic problems:

The role of nutrition 

Ahmet Aydın

IstanbulUniversity,CerrahpaşaMedicalSchool, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Metabolism and Nutrition,Istanbul,Turkey

Dental caries and orthodontic problems remains a major public health problem in most countries, affecting 60-90% of schoolchildren and the vast majority of adults. But primitive ethnic groups who consume their traditional unrefined foods rarely have these problems. Nutrients consumed affect the development and maintenance of oral tissues and the mouth’s natural protective mechanisms. Also, a food’s properties and nutrient composition influence dental plaque and the stimulation of salivary flow. The post-eruptive effect of fermentable sugar consumption (foods made with white flour, sweets, sugars, snacks, soft drinks etc.) is one of the main aetiological factors for dental caries.  Cariogenicity of a food depends on multiple factors including composition of the total diet, frequency of consumption of the food, stickiness and how long the food remains in the mouth, sequence of food intake, and combination of foods. Foods such high in fiber, certain cheeses and some flavorings increase salivary flow, thereby decreasing their time in the mouth and making them unavailable to plaque bacteria. By understanding the role essential nutrients play in oral health, nutritionists and other educators can help lessen the instances of dental caries and orthodontic problems.





Determination of Jaw Misarticulation in Both: Forensic Odontological and Patholinguistic Ways 

Cem Yüksel

Forensic Police Laboratories, Turkish National PoliceAnkara,Turkey

Speakers can be identified by depending on the determined and verified pathologies. The legal courts esteem forensic speech and audio laboratory’s ID decisions obtained from patolinguistic and odontological methods. In this case report, the expert has suspicions that the unknown speaker who left the suicide message has weak vocalizing, speech motor control, jaw occlusion and/or chewing ability problems. The expert compared the original utterances with the exemplar’s ones by actually examining the existence and value of the formant frequencies. The results revealed the fact that the suicide record was uttered by a speaker who had jaw misarticulation whereas the deceased person did not suffer such disorders. The determined misarticulation was verified by asking whether the suspect had any articulation problems on the days which the original speech was recorded. Identified speaker and her partner were convicted based upon the findings of the expert’s examination.

Keywords: Forensic odontology, patholinguistics, jaw misarticulation, formant frequency.


Chronologic Age and Cervical Vertebrae Maturation. Is there a Relation in a Turkish Sample? 

Fatih Yağmur*, Uysal T.**, Sisman Y.***

* Assistant Prof.,ErciyesUniversity, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Forensic Sciences.

* Associate Prof and Head,ErciyesUniversity, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Orthodontics.

* Assistant Prof.,ErciyesUniversity, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology.

A sharp increase in forensic age estimation of living persons has been observed in recent years and several methods have been presented for this object. It was suggested that, skeletal maturity could be determined by using anatomical changes of the cervical vertebrae observed on the lateral cephalometric radiographs. A cross-sectional study was earned out to assess chronological age estimation based on the stages of cervical vertebrae development. The study sample consisted of 503 lateral cephalometric radiographs from Turkish individuals of known chronological age (range 5-24 years, mean age: 12.04 ± 5.05 years) and gender (213 males, mean age: 12.00±2.07 years and 290 females, mean age: 12.03 ± 3.03 years). Cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) of the sample was evaluated by the Hassel and Farman modification of Lamparski’s criteria, which assesses maturational changes on the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken and CVM stages were rated by two authors separately without any knowledge about the children’s chronologic ages. The average of the two results was accepted as the vertebral maturation stages of children. The Spearman correlation coefficient was found to be 0.72 between chronologic age and CVM. Results showed a stronger correlation between age and CVM for females (r”=0.8G) than for males (r-Q.64). Statistically significant earlier formation occurred in females than males, in CVM Stage 1 (p<0.0l)? Stage 2 (pO.OGi) and Stage 3 (pO.Ol). We thought that the cervical vertebrae technique is race-neutral. Because of the high correlation coefficients, this study suggests that cervical vertebrae maturation stages from cephalometric radiographs might be clinically useful as a maturity indicator of the pubertal growth period instead of other methods in Turkish population.



The Third Mandibular Molar Radiological Development as an Indicator of Chronological Age in Turkish Population

 Sisman Y.*, Uysal T.**,  Yağmur F.*** (Turkey)

*ErciyesUniversity, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology

**ErciyesUniversity, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Orthodontics

***ErciyesUniversity, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Forensic Sciences

Assessing biological age in the youth nearby legal age has always represented a stimulating subject for the Turkish forensic scientist as far as he deals with matter of imputability and legal or illegal immigration of uncertain age subjects. A sharp increase in forensic age estimation of living persons has been observed in recent years. However, ethnic populations residing in different countries have been insufficiently analyzed. A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess chronological age estimation based on the stages of third lower molar development, following the eight stages (A-H) method of Demirjian et al. The final sample consisted of 900 oithopantomograms from Turkish individuals of known chronological age (range 8-25 years, mean age: 15.18 ± 4.81 years) and gender (380 males, mean age: 14.51 ± 4.55 and 520 females, mean age: 15.67 ± 4.94). Results showed a stronger correlation between age and molar development for females (r*”=0.74) than for males (r-0.76). Statistically significant earlier formation occurred in males than females, in stages 4 (D) and 7 (G) (p<0.05), Comparative tables are provided regarding medico legal questions concerning age 18 prediction in the Turkish population, showing that legal age is reached in stage 7 (G) by women and men. Among the Turkish population, third molar crypt formation is observable at as early as 8 years. The results revealed standard deviations similar to those reported in comparable publications and even to those calculated with other skeletal age calculation techniques.



Teaching of Forensic Dentistry in Turkish Schools of Dentistry

Ahmet Turla*, Bekir Karaarslan*, Emine Şirin Karaarslan**, Yıldız Pekşen***

* Ondokuzmayıs Universty Faculty of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine

**OndokuzmayısUniversityFaculty of Dentistry Department of Operative Dentistry

*** Ondokuzmayıs Universty Faculty of Medicine Department of Public Health

It is known that in criminal investigations, dental impressions are frequently used as a highly accurate and time-saving method. Indeed, the teeth resist physical trauma and external factors, they retain their morphological structure for a long time, and last but not least, they are mostly acquired immediately along with the victim. In a forensic identification process, the contrubitions of dentists such as teeth examinations and teeth reconstructions implicate the importance of forensic dentistry.

In this cross-sectional study, it has been aimed to emphasize on the importance of forensic dentistry education, to determine the numeric status of forensic dentistry education in schools of dentistry inTurkey, and determine the properties of the lecturers who give forensic dentistry lectures.

The data used for this study has been gathered from the up-to-date websites of the universities, annual curriculums ofDentistrySchools, and direct correspondance.

There are still very few forensic demtists in our country. But according to our laws, any dentist can be assigned as an expert for dental identification or evaluation of other oral findings. Therefore, in schools of dentistry, necessary forensic dentistry lectures should be given in standardized basis.



Importance of Dental Archiving in Forensic Sciences 

Emine Şirin Karaarslan*, Ertan Ertaş*, Bekir Karaarslan**, Hülya Köprülü*

*OndokuzmayısUniversityFaculty of Dentistry Department of Operative Dentistry

**OndokuzmayısUniversityFaculty of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine

In Forensic siences, cooperation of many disciplines including forensic dentistry is mandatory. In forensic dentistry, dentition characteristics of individuals were evaluated for identification. A multidisciplinary team and well archieving are requied to successfull identification.

In this study, the importance of dental records in dental archives and their usage areas emphasized.

Keywords: Forensic science, forensic odontology, dental record



Using a Different Metod in Photographic Distortion of Bite Mark Analysis 

Ali Çerkezoğlu***, Halis Dokgöz*, Ziya Kır**, Hüseyin Afşin*, Hakan Kar*

*MersinMedical Faculty, Department of Forensic Medicine,Mersin,Turkey

** Cerrahpaşa Medicine Faculty, Department of Forensic Medicine,Istanbul,Turkey

*** Council of Forensic Medicine,Istanbul,Turkey

Information on bitemark locations is useful to forensic odontologists and pathologists, physicians, and coroners who must be familiar with the most likely locations of bitemarks. Results revealed that human bitemarks occur at almost every anatomical location, although they tend to occur in certain areas. Crimes commonly associated with biting are homicide, rape, sexual assault, robbery, assault, and child abuse. Bite mark evidence observed in skin injuries is usually photographed for evidentiary documentation, preservation, and analysis. In some cases, it maybe camera distortion of the captured image. Distortion in forensic evidence photographs reduces the result of analytical procedures available to the forensic odontologist. In our cases we use Adobe Photoshop 7 for reduce the distorsion. We use a scale symbol which is on identity card that a method of reduce photographically distorted bite patterns. The results derived from comparison of the suspect’s teeth and the bite mark by Adobe Photosop 7. Finally this method provide adequate evidence to that case

Keywords: Forensic odontology, bite mark, photographic distorcion



The Reliability of Photographic Identification Cards for Use in Craniofacial Superimposition 

H. Munchenberg, J. A Taylor , K. A Brown

Forensic Odontology Unit,University of Adelaide,Australia 

Reliable identification by craniofacial superimposition requires ante-mortem photographs which are distortion free. From time to time photographs displayed on drivers licences or identification cards are required for post-mortem identification of persons, are the accuracy of such photographs has been questioned. This study investigated the distorsion present in photographs displayed on drivers licences produced by the digital camera system installed in the Department of Transport, Registration and Licensing Branch onWakefield Street,Adelaide

Twenty one photographs were taken of a test grid set at various heights and camera distances. The photographs were processed routinely by the department and presented on the standard drivers licence format. There were some blurring of the images evident in the photographs. The photographs were then scanned, enlarged and compared by superimposition upon the original grid. Measurements were correlated and significant discrepancies were observed. The results indicated the distorsion is related to the angulation of the camera relative to the subject. It can be concluded that the value of such photographs for identification purposes is limited by the resolution of the final image and the distortion produced by the camera system.



The Application of Superimposition Techniques in the Criminal Cases of the Cremated Body or Eating Victims

Wang Lijun, Liu Chunjie, Feng Mingsheng, Zhang Jiwei

TheResearchCenterof Scene Psychology of Jinzhou Police DepartmentJinzhou,China

The superimposition techniques are widely used in the field of forensics. But for those criminal cases of a dismembered body, cremated body, or eating victims where there are incomplete skulls with facial features, it is quite difficult to implement the techniques. This paper presents the feasibility of the craniofacial reconstruction and superimposition for identification based on fragmented skulls through our case study of a victim, in which craniofacial reconstruction and superimposition were adopted for comparison and the victim was identified correctly in the 100 missing women. And the finding was proved correct and accurate upon DNA testing.

Keywords: the fragmentary of skulls; craniofacial reconstruction; superimposition.

















Comparison of Eleonora Gonzaga Della Rovere’s Skull with the Uffizi Portrait


Rollo F, Gigli E., Mascetti M, Cameriere R.

Istitute of Legal Medicine,University of Macerata,Italy


The present paper describes the study of a skeleton kept at the Church of Santa Chiara in Urbino Italy, that the tradition ascribed at remain of the Duchess Eleonora Gonzaga della Rovere (1493- 1550). Suspicious wasn’t a certainty and the remains might belong to another important personage of the Urbino Renaissance, Battista Sforza (1447- 1472). Age at the death of the two personages was rather different and it was estimated through the principal anthropological technique and a recently method for age determination of adults from single-rooted teeth. Age estimation of the skeleton were found to be consistent with the age at death of Eleonora and her skull was superimposed on the Uffizzi (Florence) portrait of Eleonora Gonzaga by Titian. The face of Eleonora matches the skull fairly closely except for the length of the nose. The historical record and the age matching appear to provide strong evidence that the remains are those of Eleonora, and the discrepancies in the superimposition may suggest that the artist altered the dimension of the Duchess’nose The results highlight the potential of forensic method as a key to understand the work of earlier painters.

Keywords: Comparison, skull, Eleonora Gonzaga della Rovere













Photographic Identification? A Quick Method for Comparison


Per Holck

Anatomical Institute,UniversityofOsloOslo,Norway

We are living in a world where people migrate from country to country, which often leads to controversies with the authorities. Sometimes people’s real identity can not be proved because of false passports. The question sometimes arises whether the photo is taken many years ago or simply is that of another person. An easy and quick method to suggest (not prove!) the identity – positively or negatively – is often needed by the police or passport authorities. By taking measurements between certain facial points on the photographic portrait and calculating the index between two or more points, we are independent on the different size between the pictures. To compare the indices, at least 5 measurements should be taken; index differences of < 5 % mean nearly identity, 5-10 % uncertain, > 10 % probably not identical.

Keywords: Photographic identification, comparison,
















Methods for Forensic Face Comparison


Özgür Bulut

Turkish Forensic PoliceLaborotory Ankara,Turkey


Using photographs on idendity cards, driving licences, passports and other identification documents is indispensable and commonly used applications by public. Counterfeits are the subjects of criminal examinations because of the criminals who make frauds on these documents to hide their identities or to escape abroad. Application of comparison between the exemplar photos of suspects and the photos on the original documents is one of these examinations. There are two methods during the comparison process on photos. These are morphological and anthropometric comparison applications. In this study, examination of facial characteristics and evaluations about how to perform these methods enabling correct anatomical measurements are presented.

Keywords: Face compassion, anatomical measurements, photographs

















































Analysis of Mephentermine by GC/MS Method


Wang Lijun, Liu Jun, Ma Hongang, Zhang Biao

ResearchCenterof Scene Psychology Jinzhou Police DepartmentJinzhou,China


The chemical name for mephentermine is Benzeneethanamine, N,à,à-trimethyl-. It is a kind of new amphetamine narcotics, which has never been reported domestically inChina. We have adopted GC/MS method to examine mephentermine. The method is quick and accurate.

Keyword: Mephentermine, Gas chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS)

























Study on the Changes of the Pulp Chamber with Age Development for the Northeast Chinese


Wang Lijun*, Meng Jun*, Cai Xiaohan*, Jing Jing*, Zhao Yue*, Shi Jian **

* The ResearchCenter ofScene Psychology,Jinzhou Police Department,China

** The No. 2 Hospital of Jinzhou Medical College, China


The purpose is to analyze the changes of the pulp chamber size with the age development through fixed-point measurement and statistical analysis of the mesiodistal diameter at the 1/2 of the pulp chamber of the lower central incisor and the height of the pulp chamber of the first lower premolar, which was realized with the x-ray films of 600 lower central incisors and 600 first lower premolars of the 300 cases of normal people aging between 10 and 70 years old. And the results show that those two decreases with the development of age. With the statistics for different groups of ages, there are obvious changes between different groups and the correlation coefficient is negative. In conclusion, the size of the pulp chamber changes with the age development is in certain regularity, and it decreases as the age develops.

Keywords: Incisor tooth, molar tooth, X- ray films, measurement.
















Study on the Individual Identification Utilizing Ear Prints


Jing Jing

TheResearchCenterof Scene Psychology of Jinzhou Police DepartmentJinzhou,China

With the increasingly wide application of the Security Monitoring System, it will play an important role in the identification of individuals to adopt ear prints. In order to enhance the capacity of the craniofacial identification techniques, this paper describes, in all aspects, the technique of identifying individuals by ear prints for its history, the development in the future, and the existing problems regarding its measurement standard, method of comparison, and traits categorizing.

Keywords: Ear prints, individual identification, method of comparison, traits categorizing.































Advantages and Difficulties of Video Documentations for Autopsy


Harun Tuğcu*, İ. Özgür Can*, Mehmet Toygar*, Ender Şenol*, Çağlar Özdemir**, Mükerrem Safalı***

*GülhaneMilitaryMedicalAcademy, Department of Forensic Medicine,Ankara,Turkey

**ErciyesUniversityMedical Faculty, Department of Forensic Medicine,Kayseri,Turkey

***GülhaneMilitaryMedicalAcademy, Department of Pathology,Ankara,Turkey


The recording of video images holds a great importance as well as taking photos during scene investigations and forensic autopsy procedures. Documentation of video images during forensic autopsy procedures has become obligatory inTurkeyvia recent legal arrangements.

In the present study, video images recorded during autopsies and postmortem examinations in 15 cases recorded by Gulhane Military Academy Department of Forensic Medicine during the year of 2006 were examined and the results of the examinations were compared with the prepared autopsy reports while the video images were also evaluated in terms of color and sound quality.

As the video images were compared with postmortem examinations, it was determined that most of the lesions recorded in the autopsy report were also present in the video recordings. Additionally, it was determined that the quality of the images was at a good level but there were artefacts in sound records and the recording durations were short.

The recording of video images should be performed by staff furnished with the special technical knowledge and it should be realized under convenient conditions. The video images acquired during autopsies and postmortem examinations can be used for retrospective scientific investigation as well as research and educational purposes.

Keywords: Autopsy, video images, education.





Validation of Computerized Facial Approximation Using Re/Face

Diana K. Moyers*, Heather L. Peters**, Mohamed R. Mahfouz***,

Michael A. Taister****

* Graduate Student,UniversityofTennessee,KnoxvilleTennessee, U.S.A

** Research Chemist, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Counterterrorism and Forensic Science Research Unit,FBIAcademy, QuanticoVirginia, U.S.A

*** Co-Director, Center for Musculoskeletal Research, Mechanical Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Tennessee, U.S.A.

**** Supervisor and Visual Information Specialist, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Printing and Graphics Unit, Facilities and Logistics Services, FBI HeadquartersWashington,D.C.U.S.A.


The purpose of this research was twofold: 1) evaluate facial reconstruction software called Reality Enhancement / Facial Approximation by Computational Estimation (Re/Face) and 2) compare facial approximations generated by Re/Face to antemortem photographs of test subjects. Re/Face is a facial approximation program developed by the FBI in conjunction with GE Global Research. The Re/Face database contains more than 200 computed tomography (CT) scans of living subjects. The test set consists of CT scans of 53 articulated human skulls from the William Bass Skeletal Collection at theUniversityofTennesseeinKnoxville. Re/Face was evaluated in stages from the initial prototype to the final beta version. Each version was tested with all 53 sample skulls. To develop standardized scanning protocol, CT scans of test skulls were made at varying slice thicknesses, multiple articulation methods were tested, and many different packing materials were evaluated. Problems were identified and resolved with respect to the removal of extraneous materials captured in the CT image and the importation of varying bone densities from “wet” to “dry.” Currently, Re/Face approximations have closed eyes, are without hair, and there is no ability for aging. However, test subjects under optimal conditions bear a striking resemblance to antemortem photographs.

Keywords: Computed tomography, facial approximation, bone densities







Age Estimation in Skeletons by Pulp/Tooth Ratio in Canines


Roberto Cameriere, Luigi Ferrante, Maria Giovanna Belcastro, Benedetta Bonfiglioli, Elisa Rastelli, Mariano Cingolani

Istitute of Legal Medicine,University of Macerata,Italy

The present investigation was conducted to examine the possible application of the pulp/tooth area ratio by peri-apical images as an indicator of age at death. A total of 200 peri-apical X-rays of upper and lower canines were assembled from 57 male and 43 female skeletons of Caucasian origin, aged between 20 and 79 years.For each skeleton dental maturity was evaluated by measuring the pulp/tooth area ratio on upper (x1) and lower (x2) canines. Statistical analysis was performed in order to obtain multiple regression formulae for dental age calculation, with chronological age as dependent variable, and gender and upper and lower canines as independent variables. Stepwise regression analysis showed that gender did not contribute significantly to the fit (p=0.881) whereas variables x1 and x2 and the first-order interaction between them did. These two variables explained 92.5% of variations in estimated chronological age and the residual standard error was 4.06 years.

Keywords: Age estimation, pulp/tooth ratio, canines


















The Affection Analysis of the Face Cosmetic Operation for the Skull Picture Coincidence Marker

Xu Ke

The criminal scientific & technicalinstituteofPolice BureauinShenyangCity,Shenyang,Liaoning,China


The principle of the skull picture coincidence is the perspective coincidence picture of the face and the skull shape, which judges if each marker point and the measured value of the soft tissue are within the normal scope. If one target is not corresponded, it should check the possible reasons; if over two targets are not corresponded, it should be excluded. The medical cosmetic operation has changed some one’ looks. In the six big items of the cosmetic operation, the face has taken up their four items. The excessive cosmetic operation on the face, the “change face” in the graftage between the different bodies and the “face transition operation” etc. will result to the distinguished change for the marker points of the skull picture coincidence soft tissue. The used skull marker line in the skull picture coincidence method has the similar position as well the shape with the “three stops and five eyes” divided in the local decomposed golden point on the face cosmetic operation. Many special people have known the interference of the soft tissue change on the early photograph before, but they do not understand the affection of the face cosmetic operation for the marker point change used in the skull picture coincidence method. The position of the face cosmetic operation will result to the change on the marker line, the contour curve, the soft tissue thickness of the face part of the header and the marker point of the skull picture coincidence method (see the table). There are the increasing marker point (the prosthesis embedding operation), the reducing marker point (the angle of mandible adduction operation), the marker line displacement (the expanding operation on the medial & lateral angle of two eyes), the marker point displacement (the skin tension operation, the prosthesis embedding operation) in the table. Because the above face changes, the analysis may result to failure for the skull picture coincidence under the undefined reasons.

Keywords: the skull picture coincidence, face cosmetic operation, the marker change






A Forensic Workplace for Craniofacial Reconstruction

Jan Müller, Andreas Mang, Jens Bongartz, Thorsten M. Buzug

Department of Mathematics and Technology,Remagen,Germany

Currently, there is a transition from manual to computer-aided procedures in forensic facial soft-tissue reconstruction. The traditional method of clay-based face reproduction onto a real skull or its replica has been proven to be very successful in the past. However, the manual procedure is very sophisticated; the sculptor needs a deep understanding of the human face anatomy as well as artistic and talented handicraft skills. Only a small community of highly specialized experts are capable to archive acceptable results. Therefore, a prototype of a forensic workplace is presented that supports the facial soft-tissue reconstruction. The workplace consists of a computer-based optical navigation system which allows 6-dimensional virtual interaction and a graphic accelerator card which allows real-time visualization. Based on a digitalization of the skull e.g. with computed tomography, a virtual face reproduction is implemented that speeds-up the entire procedure and allows inexperienced users to correct the result even in a late stage of the reconstruction.





















Identificaton of Sexual Assault Cases Using Y-Str


Seher Altunbaş

Ministry of Interior, Gendermarie General Command, Criminal Department, Biology Branch,Ankara,Turkey

Introductıon: Y chromosome has an important role for determining the perpetrators in sexual assaults, for concluding paternity trials or can easily be used in evaluation, immigration and anthropologic studies. Sexual crime is the most effective field for this type of the examination In addition to this, sexual assaults where there are more than one male offenders or the rape committed by azospermic or vasectomised persons, can be solved by using the polymorphic regions of Y chromosome

Objectıves: Our aim in this study is to point out the importance of Y-STR’s in well conceived sexual assault cases by using primers peculiar to Y chromosome in Biological Examination Lab.

Equipments and Methods: In our study, DNA from 593 samples were isolated with Chelex-100 and QIAmp DNA mini kit (Qiagen, Hilden / Germany) methods. DNA samples (0.5-1ng) were amplified with PCR technique according to the protocol by making use of the reactives in Y-PLEXTM5, Y-PLEXTM 6 and POWER PLEX® YAmplified samples were run in capillary electrophoresis device (ABI PrismTM310 Genetic Analyzer-Perkin Elmer).

Results and Discussion: In sexual crimes, small of amount of DNA of the perpetrator mixed with the large amount of DNA of victim can successfully be typed just by using primers peculiar to Y-Chromosome. In paternal trials, in case father is not found and the child is male, Y-STR result of any male such as grandfather, uncle or cousin that comes from paternal lineage will contribute to solving the case.In our laboratory identification study was carried out on totally 593 samples by using Y-STR of which %33 Power Plex 5 (198/593), %59 Power Plex6 (349/593) and %8 Power Plex Y (46/593). It is realized that, the usage of Y-STR studies are strongly important and need for contributing to STR activities especially in sexual assault cases.







Identification Using DNA Obtained From Finger Bone

Fazilet Bayrak, Nurgül Katırcı

Ministry of Interior Gendermarie General Command Forensic Department,

Forensic Biology Branch,Ankara,Turkey

Introduction and Aim: In cases where it’s not possible to find the corpses intact, such as the bitten of the soft tissues of the body by wild animals, mass disasters or mass graves, identification can be carried out with DNA obtained from bone. The aim of this survey is to prove the alternative utility of finger bone in forensic examinations of the smashed bodies out of the usage of tooth, femur and sternum.

Equipments and Methods: DNA was izolated from the left finger bone belonging to dead body found on open land. The quantity of isolated DNA was dedected with Dot-Blot Hybridization method by using QuantiBlot Human DNA Quantitation kit(Perkin Elmer, Norwalk, CT) DNA sample (0.5-1 ng) was amplified by making use of AmpFlSTR Identifiler(Applied Biosystem) kit and GeneAmp PCR System 9700(Applied Biosystem). Amplified DNA sample was run by using ABI Prism 310 (Applied Biosystem) and POP4. DNA profile of the sample was found by using internal ruler according to GeneScan Program(Version 3.1.2.).

Discussion: In criminal cases, DNA profile is generally obtained from blood, hair, tissue and saliva samples. When it is not possible to receive positive responses from these samples, DNA examination can be tried on bone and tooth samples. Even though femur and sternum are used for this purpose, it was observed that DNA profile can be obtained from tiny bone particle or finger bone as in our study.

Keywords: Finger bone, DNA





Evaluation of Unidentified Forensic Autopsy Cases in Izmir, Turkey


Gülden Çengel*, Akça Toprak Ergönen**, İ. Özgür Can**, Yonca Sönmez***

* Council of Forensic Medicine, Mortuary Section,Izmir,Turkey

** DEÜTF Department of Forensic Medicine,Izmir,Turkey

*** DEÜTF Department of Public Health,Izmir,Turkey

The identification of deceased is essential from the standpoint of legal and ethical purposes. In the event of a human remain or deceased could not be identified, some problems arise concerning to individual rights, legal family and inheritance process and life insurance contracts. Identification of unknown deceased is based on postmortem scientific methods. The purpose of this study was to collect database for further postmortem identification studies in the region ofAegean. Method Social demographic data of unidentified deceased including gender, finding place, manner of death, histopathological and toxicological specimen collection records were examined in2004 inIzmir Group Presidency of Forensic Medicine Council. Results were entered to SPSS Windows 10.0 program for statistical evaluation. Results 56 unidentified deceased were examined and 16 of their identification were established by the help of scene investigation and postmortem examination. Of the remaining 40 cases, 27 were men (67.5%), 9 were women (22.5%) and 4 were (10%) unknown gender cases. 38 % of them were found inIzmircity center. Drowning was found the cause of death in 15 (37.5%) cases. Conclusion It was essential to give permission for burial procedure after the process of scene investigation, postmortem examination and appropriate specimen collection for further research. At this presentation, social demographic data, performed postmortem procedures and cause of death in unidentified bodies would be discussed.

Keywords: Unidentified deceased, postmortem, identification.





Forensic biology: past, present and future in Turkey

B. Karadayı*, Ş. Karadayı**, S Mercan**, M. Ozar Özlem***, Ümit Ünüvar Atılmış****

* IstanbulUniversity, Medicine Faculty of Cerrahpasa, Deparment of Forensic Medicine,Istanbul,Turkey

** IstanbulUniversity, Institute of Forensic Sciences,Istanbul,Turkey

***  IstanbulUniversity, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science,Istanbul,Turkey

**** The Council of Forensic Medicine,Istanbul,Turkey


Introduction: Forensic Biology is one of the scientific disciplines generally grouped together under the title of Forensic Science. Forensic biology has reached an unprecedented prominence with the advent of DNA profiling. Biologists placed in forensic sciences have also been playing an important role in examining biological exhibits oriented with crime. The working area of the forensic biologist includes, evidence examination and preservation, presumptive and confirmatory serological tests, hair comparisons, generation and statistical analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA profiles, structure. Generally the duties and responsibilities of forensic biologist are very hazardous, onerous and risky, because they are to deal with the material exhibits pertaining to various natures of crimes such as blood, urine, semen, saliva. Here we take a brief look at profile of forensic biologists who worked inTurkey.

Methods: The biologists were divided into 4 groups, according to the working places and education profile which is criminal laboratories connected to the government;

  1. University,
  2. Police department,
  3. General Command of Gendarmerie and
  4. The Council of Forensic Medicine.

Results: 83 forensic biologists who worked in criminal laboratories connected to the government were determined inTurkey. About 48% of forensic biologists have Bachelor of Science (BS) degree, % 36 of forensic biologists have Master of Science (MSc) degree, 11 % of forensic biologists have Philosophy of Doctor (PhD) degree and 5 % of forensic biologists were assistant professor. Distribution of the Forensic biologists’ working places were established as; %23 is in universities, %31 is in the police department, %12 is in the General Command of Gendarmerie, % 34 is in The Council of Forensic Medicine.

Conclusion: Forensic biology combines in-depth forensic investigation studies and practices with the sensitive and specific techniques used and developed for studies biologic systems such as mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, X and Y chromosomes studies. As a result, forensic biologist within criminal laboratories must be educated in widespread scale. Forensic biologist who has a qualified education will be effective of solving the complicated forensic cases. However, it stands out the low rate of the number of the forensic biologists with MSc and PhD degrees who study seriously in forensic biology. In addition to that, the deficient number of the forensic biologists can’t be ignored. The biologists must be encouraged for working in forensic science because of necessity and importance of biologists in forensic science.

Keywords: Forensic biology, forensic biologist, education profile
































Forensic Bite Mark Analysis: Case Report

Memnune Boşgelmez*, Emine Türkmen Şamdancı**, Ahmet Hakan Dinç***

* Forensic Medicine Council,Ankara,Turkey

** Forensic Medicine Council,Ankara,Turkey

*** Forensic Medicine Council,Ankara,Turkey


Bite mark evidence has gained a significant importance at the segment of forensic science. It has been used as an aid the identification of criminal instances. Forensic odontologist has noted with specific and characteristic informations about person who has inflicted the bite mark, and he or she use these informations for positively identify a suspect. Here a positive match between the suspect’s dentition and the bite marks on the victim.






























2D Facial Reconstruction Based on Skull Photography

(An Experimental Study)


Ziya Kır*, Ümit Ünüvar Atılmış**, Beytullah Karadayı*, Ali Çerkezoğlu**,

Sadi Çağdır*, Gökay Karagil***

* Department of Forensic Medicine,IstanbulUni. Cerrahpaşa Medical S.,Istanbul,Turkey

** Councill of Forensic Medicine,Istanbul,Turkey

*** Police Department, Magosa


Introduction: Identification process has a priority in the evaluation of the case whenever skeletal remnants are disclosed at a crime scene. Especially prediction of the height, evaluation of the epiphysis lines and determination of sex with various methods all contribute to identification. In recent years, two- and three-dimensional superimposition methods and computerized reconstruction studies help identification.

Case: This case report is about skeletal remnants of a human who died two years before and found in a well inCyprus, Magosa (Famagusta). The identification was performed with classical methods. The remnants were thought to belong to 40-45 years old male. This experimental two-dimensional facial reconstruction was performed at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Istanbul Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty. The identity was already known and photographs were present. The photographs were not taken accordingly due to lack of experienced personnel. Mandible occlusion was not complete. In two- dimensional facial reconstruction studies, the skull is photographed inFrankfurt plan after tissue thickness is estimated. The experimental study was performed within these deficiencies. Reconstructions were compared to real photographs. The resulting comparison suggests that general features of the face can be obtained.






Identification Procedures as a Part of Death Investigations in Turkey


Öner Daregenli, İbrahim Üzün, Gözde Şirin, Ömer Müslümanoğlu

Council of Forensic Medicine, Ministry of Justice,Istanbul,Turkey

Forensic identification techniques include the examination of ID cards, the deceased’s private belongings, finger prints, footprints, lip marks, dental findings, RBC enzymes, performing photo matching, facial reconstruction, visual identification, and DNA “fingerprinting”. As part of forensic examinations, the identification of corpses that are fresh, decomposed, fragmented or skeletonized as well as individual body parts and human remains can be requested. Identification becomes a challenging task for forensic terms particularly in mass disaster situations. Each identification case should be considered to its own merit and way to do that should be based on the effectiveness and cost of each method used. InTurkey one of the major duties of the medicolegal system about investigation of deaths is to identify the deceased if unknown.

This study is undertaken to investigate the procedures, as well as their validities, used to deal with individualization of dismembered bodies directly sent to the Council of Forensic Medicine, Ministry of Justice for autopsy and/or visual identification, as well as those received from peripheral districts for forensic identification. According to Turkish Penal Procedural Law (CMUK), a positive identification of the deceased is mandatory prior to performing an autopsy. According to the law the ID cards do not taken to be sufficient for recognition of the deceased, and the major way of identification in daily practice is visual identification by a relative or any recognizant person to approve the identification to the prosecutor. If visual identification fails, fingerprints, dental X-rays or body X-rays, and DNA “fingerprinting” can be used to establish identity when compared to known records of the individual obtained by law enforcement.

This retrospective study carries out into 421 dismembered bodies, among 3063 autopsies performed in year 2002 by the Department of Morgue at the Council of Forensic Medicine, with particular insight into the identification procedures undertaken and their results. The overall negative identification rate was %30.4, and in %1 of the cases, the visual identification by relatives were not confirmed by DNA identification and taken as misidentified.

Keywords: Medicolegal identification, visual identification




Identification from Photographic Analysis at the Council of Forensic Medicine Between 2002 to 2003


İsmail Birincioğlu, Rıza Yılmaz, Nurşen Turan, Gürsel Çetin, Mustafa Uzun

Council of Forensic Medicine,Istanbul,Turkey


Parallel to the advances in technology, several methods for identifying individuals have been developed. One of such techniques is identification from photographs. Identification from photographs is the process of comparing the photographs from the same or different individuals that are obtained at different points in time. To this end in cases that arrived at the Physical Specialty Center of the Council of Forensic Medicine between 2002 to 2003 were analyzed in terms of the quality and the quantity of the photographs, the number of compared photographs, and the type of courts, the arrived decisions, the justifications for warrants and the genders of the individuals to be identified.

In conclusion of the cases that arrived; 22 (48%) were identified as the individual questioned by the court or as belonging to the same individual, 10 (22%) were identified as not being the individual questioned by the court or as belonging to another individual.

Together with the rapid advances in technology, analysis of photographs is gaining an increased importance. The study was carried out with the aim of emphasizing the importance of identification of individuals through photographic analysis in shedding light into criminal events as well as proving the identity in certain legal issues.

Keywords: Identification, photographic analysis










Use For Estimation of Sex of the Posterior Cranial Fossa Volume by the Cavalieri Principle on Computed Tomography Images


Ayşe Kurtuluş*, Kemalettin Acar**, Bora Boz**, Baki Yağci***

* Forensic Department of Elazığ Training and Research,Elazığ,Turkey

** Pamukkale Medicine Faculty Department of Forensic Medicine,Denizli,Turkey

*** Pamukkale Medicine Faculty Department of Radiology,Denizli,Turkey


One of the most important parts of identification is to determine the sex of the individual. Cranial bones are more essential than postcranial bones in sex identification since they can show more differentiations due to sex. The aim of this study was to investigate of sexual dimorphism on the posterior cranial fossa volume. Axial computed tomographic images of ten healthy Turkish individuals were calculated by using the Cavalieri principle which is an efficient and unbiased stereology method to define posterior cranial fossa volumes. The PCF volumes of males were significantly larger than the females (p<0.05).

Keywords: Posterior cranial fossa volume; CT; cavalieri principle; stereology






















İbrahim Üzün, A.Sadi Çağdır (Turkey)


Analysis of Age-related Facial  Changes  Using Photographes 



Identification is one of the most important subjects of forensic medicine .It can be done for the deads or skeletal structures and as well as for the living people.One of the subjects of forensic medicine is identification of people from their photographs.The photographs of the same person or the others taken at different tımes can be used for this purpose.Approximately 20 files in a year are sent to the Department of Physical Research Center facilitating in The Institution of Forensic Medicine.In some of these files if the photograph was or was not belonged to the person himself when he applied for a job was asked .In some other cases the questions whether the represented photograph on an official paper was or was not belonged to the person who played a major role in a commitment or the photograph taken in any places was or was not important for that case were asked.The purpose of our study is to find out valid and objective criterias which can be used in practice for identification procedures.

In this study totally 42 cases including 29 males, 13 females aging from 2 to 74 are examined for their 151 photographs of which 97 are for diaries and 54 for single image respectively.

The collected photographs in The Institution of Forensic Medicine were enlarged to the size of 6×9 cm.In diary photographs the faces were so small that we had to increase the size twice than orijinal image.

Photographs are put into an albume after classifying them according to the individual properties.A number is given for each case .Before starting, a table is prepared by examining İşcan’s study.































Fragmentation of the Skull due to Firearm Injuries by the Hydrodynamic Effect: Problems of Identification

Demirci, Ş*,  Doğan*, KH, Koç, S**, Günaydın, G*, Kolusayın, Ö**.

*SelcukUniversity, Meram Medical Faculty Forensic Medicine Department

**IstanbulUniversity, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty Forensic Medicine Department


Konya is the largest province of Turkey with regard to is area and occupies the 4 th rank as for its population. This province provides approximately 70-80 % of the shotgun production of the country. Thus, firearm injuries and fatalities also pose high figures.

176 (6.5%) of 2556 cases examined and autopsied in Konya in the last 5 years have been caused by firearm injures. Among them, there are 17 cases with large skull defects and fragmentation by the hydrodynamic effect of high-energy firearms, 15 caused by shotguns and 2 by long-muzzle (war) weapons. During the examination of these 17 skulls, 5 (29.4%) indirect lower jaw fractures were observed.

Among them, 87 fatalities (49.4) were due to shotgun injuries, the most frequent target being the submental area in 9 cases (52.9%). As for the origin, 14 cases 82.4%) were suicides, 2 (11.8%) accidents, the victims being minors of 5 and 8 years old, respectively, and 1 case (5.9%) homicide. The mean average of the victims was 25.94 years.

The aim of the present study is to discuss the features of cases with skull deformations caused by high – energy weapons as well as problems of identification.


Keywords: firearm injurie, hydrodynamic effect, skull defect, identification.

























Contribution of antemortem radiologic images to postmortem identification processes: two cases


Yalçın BÜYÜK*, A.Sadi ÇAĞDIR*, Yüksel A.YAZICI*, S.Murat EKE**

*   MD, The Ministry of Justice, The Council of Forensic Medicine, Istanbul/Turkey

** Assist. Prof,University ofKırıkkale, Medical Faculty, Department of Forensic Medicine, Kırıkkale/Turkey


Although many parts of the human skeleton can serve as bony prints for the identification of human remains and in certain respects bones have uniqueness similar to that of fingerprints, the use of radiologic techniques in the area of forensic medicine has received only sparse consideration and attention. The size, shape and dimensions of many structures are very stable in the skeleton of head and can be used for identification purposes. Among these structures, the frontal sinuses housed in the ridge of bone just above the eye sockets have numerous chambers with lobes separated by walls or septae. These sinuses are ideal for comparison between ante mortem records and corresponding postmortem views.

In our institution the superimposition technique and 2 and 3-D reconstruction procedures are the techniques mostly applied for identification of unknown skeletal remains. If present, antemortem radiologic images contribute to these identification processes. In this case report we present two cases of positive identification, one by facial reconstruction and the other by superimposition techniques. In these cases antemortem computed tomographic images, and conventional radiographs showing frontal sinuses and nasal fracture contributed to the identification of these two cases.

KEYWORDS: Identification, skeletal remains, superimposition, facial reconstruction, radiography


















Fatma Yucel Beyaztas, Ilhan Sezgın, Eylem Gul, Celal Butun  (Turkey)
Analysis of HumFABP2 as Polymorphic Human Genetic Marker in Turkish Population


* Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical Faculty ofCumhuriyetUniversitySivas-TURKEY.

** Department of Medical Genetics, Medical Faculty ofCumhuriyetUniversitySivas-TURKEY.



The population genetic data are widely used in forensic DNA analysis for calculating genetic profiles matching probabilities, paternity index and probability of paternity, as well as for mixed stain calculations. Because of the fast evolution and application of molecular biology techniques, institutions that do fulfill the law have used the DNA typing to solve criminal inquiries. The aim of this work was to examine allele frequencies of HumFABP2 locus in 155 individuals from different regions ofTurkey.

The allele and genotype frequencies for HumFABP2 were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the manufacturer’s recommended protocol, and using the commercially available Macherey-Nagel DNA isolation kit. PCR amplification was carried out in a Perkin-Elmer GeneAmp PCR System 9600 termal cycler with conditions as followed the manufacturer’s recommendations. The allele frequencies in Turkish population computed, heterozygote rate was calculated. In this population study of 155 samples, they were found 75 (48.39 %) heterozygote (150/250 bp) and 80 (51.61 %) homozygote (150 bp). The results showed heterozygotic cases as 150/250 bp, and homozygotic cases as 150 bp. In conclusion, allele frequencies data of HumFABP2 as PCR based genetic marker could be used in identity testing to estimate the frequency of a multiple PCR based profile in the Turkish population.

Key Words: Polymorphic marker, Population genetics, Identification, Forensic medicine, Turkish population.


Havva Altunçul*, Ph.D.

Gönül Filoğlu Tüfek*, Ph.D.

*İstanbul Üniversitesi Adli Tıp Enstitüsü, PK 10, Cerrahpaşa 34098, İstanbul



It is possibility to identification and paternity from all kind of biological material by molecular genetic analysis. But it is not always possible to work with fresh blood or tissues because there are some cases that request identification from bone remains or from material obtained by opening the graves. In Turkey works on DNA isolation and typing from bone and tooth started in1995 inthe Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Science of Istanbul University. The aim of this work is to determine the developments that occurred during these 11 years in Turkey.

In the first years, the method that were used to perform the DNA analysis on bones and tooth remainders in Turkey were phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol, and silica and later, there were a lot of commercial kits that were being used. At the beginning, genotype was done with HLADQA1, PM (LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, GC) and some STR loci. To type of these loci, at least 2ng DNA were necessary, while nowadays, as a parallel development of molecular biology, it is possible to work mitochondrial DNA or many of the STR loci at the same time with very few DNA.

Between the years 1995-2006 the Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Science of Istanbul University received eight identity and thirteen paternity requests from juridical courts and attorney’s offices. The 66% of all these requests pertains to the years 1995-1997. Because in these years, the Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Science of Istanbul University was the only institute that was able to perform works on DNA isolation and typing from bones and all the requests were sent to this Institute. Especially, after from 2000 year, when the necessary substructures were completed, the cases were divided through the different criminal laboratories.

As a result, in Turkey, we can state that the present criminal laboratories that are using DNA analysis techniques have made great progress as well as in their trained staff as in their techniques during these last years.




Oğuzhan Ekizoğlu, Hayri Ömer Berköz, Ümit Ünüvar Atılmış

Which problems may arise in facial reconstruction after plastic surgery?

















































Determination of Sex based on the Measurements of Skull and Mandible

Bülent Şam, Hüseyin Afşin, Ümit Biçer, Ömer Kurtaş, Ali Çerkezoğlu, Önder Özkalıpçı


Sex differences of skull and mandible are determinated by morphometric measurements and morphological traits. Morphological points which usefull for sex determination are zygomatic bone, glabella, mastoid and eye brow notchs, protuberentia occipitalis externa, mentum and gonion. Sex determination using by morphometric measurements includes measuring the distances of some anthropometric points.

Aim of this study to determinate the morphometric sex differences of skull and mandible for Turkish population.



female mean (mm)

male mean (mm)


97,15 (n:11)

102,68 (n:51)


88,29 (n:11)

94,27 (n:49)


67,42 (n:11)

74,27 (n:50)

Mastoid height

31,95 (n:11)

35,97 (n:50)

Biasterionic breadth

105,9 (n:10)

110,54 (n:47)

Foramen Mag. breadth

30,36 (n:11)

31,59 (n:51)

Foramen Mag. length

35,99 (n:11)

36,86 (n:51)

Ext. Palatinal breadth

57,33 (n:10)

62,08 (n:51)

Ext. Palatinal length

49,24 (n:11)

53,37 (n:50)

Nasal Apertura height

49,67 (n:11)

53,16 (n:52)

Nasal Apertura breadth

23,42 (n:11)

24,66 (n:52)

Bicondylar length

116,76 (n:8)

120,54 (n:47)

Bigonion breadth

93,41 (n:10)

101,82 (n:47)

Min. Ramus breadth

28,71 (n:10)

31,22 (n:49)

Max.Corpus thick(M2)

14,41 (n:8)

14,77 (n:45)
















Using the Estimation of Sex of the Posterior Cranial Fossa Volume Based On the Cavalieri Principle on Computed Tomography Images


Ayşe Kurtuluş*, Kemalettin Acar**, Bora Boz**, Baki Yağci***

* Forensic Department of Elazığ Training and Research,Elazığ,Turkey

** Pamukkale Medicine Faculty Department of Forensic Medicine,Denizli,Turkey

*** Pamukkale Medicine Faculty Department of Radiology,Denizli,Turkey


One of the most important parts of identification is to determine the sex of the individual. Cranial bones are more essential than postcranial bones in sex identification since they can show more differentiations due to sex. The aim of this study was to investigate of sexual dimorphism on the posterior cranial fossa volume. Axial computed tomographic images of ten healthy Turkish individuals were calculated by using the Cavalieri principle which is an efficient and unbiased stereology method to define posterior cranial fossa volumes. The PCF volumes of males were significantly larger than the females (p<0.05).

Keywords: Posterior cranial fossa volume; CT; cavalieri principle; stereology





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